Fruit Chill Requirements : Bega Valley Seed Savers


Fruit and Nut Winter Chill Requirements

No Chill Fruits & Nuts

The following table lists those fruit and nut trees that do not require any hours of chilling in order to fruit productively. However some of these trees are cold sensitive and cannot survive in our current local climate without added protection over winter.

Most Australian Bushfood plants fall into the no chill category and probably deserve more attention.

 

Common Name

Genus & Species

Min Temp

Pinenuts

Pinus spp.

-22

Passionfruit

Passiflora spp

-10

Loquat

Eriobotrya japonica

-10

Jujubes

Zizyphus jujuba

-10

Paper mulberry

Broussonetia papyrifera

-10

Carob

Ceratonia siliqua

-7

Sugarcane

Saccharum officinarum

-5

Calamondin

x Citrofortunella mitis

-5

Mandarin ? Satsuma

Citrus spp.

-5

Strawberry Guava

Psidium cattleianum

-5

Mesquite

Prosopis spp.

-4

Lemon

Citrus spp.

-4

Orange

Citrus spp.

-4

Avocado

Persea spp.

-3

Longan

Dimocarpus longan

-3

Mountain Paw Paw

Carica pubescens

-3

Tamarillo

Cyphomandra betacea

-2

Babaco

Carica heilbornii var pentagona

-2

Cherimoya

Annona cherimola

-2

Banana

Musa spp.

-2

Rosella

Hibiscus spp.

0

Macadamia

Macadamia tetraphylla

0

Davidson's Plum

Davidsonia jerseyana

0

American Paw Paw

Asimina triloba

?

 

Low & Medium Chill Fruit & Nuts

While these trees do require some chilling to fruit well the number of hours is within the range we might expect in the next 50 years. A 7 ºC increase in average temperature would mean that Bega would receive around 200 chilling hours each winter by 2100.

Common Name

Genus & Species

Chill hours

Feijoa

Feijoa sellowiana

>75

Lychee

Litchi chinensis

100-200

Pomegranate

Punica granatum

100-200

Persimmon

Diospyros kaki

100-200

Quince

Cydonia oblonga

100-400

Figs

Ficus carica

100-500

Grapes ? European

Vitis vinifera

100-500

Strawberry

Fragaria x Ananassa

200-400

Olives

Olea europaea

200-600

Almond

Prunus dulcis

300-500

Kumquat

Fortunella

300-500

Mulberry

Morus spp

400

Damson

Prunus insititia

?

 

High Chill Fruit & Nuts

Breeding efforts have created low chill varieties of fruits and nuts that are normally considered high chill. These low chill varieties have been listed where known. A lot of breeding work has occurred in Florida, USA and in QLD, Australia. Releases of new varieties from these areas are generally low chill varieties.

Common Name

Genus & Species

Chill hours

Blackberry

Rubus spp

200-800

Blueberry

Vaccinium spp

350-1100

 

Rabbit-eye

350-800

 

Southern Highbush

400

 

Highbush

800-1100

Apricot

Prunus armeniaca

400-1000

Chestnut

Castanea spp

450-650

Pecan

Carya illinoinensis

500 (300-1000)

Muscadine

Vitis rotundifolia

500-1000

Plums

Prunus spp

500-1200

 

Japanese plums

500-800

 

Greengages

600-800

 

European plums

> 1000

Peach & Nectarine

Prunus persica

600-1000

Pears

Pyrus spp

600-1000

 

Asian Pears (Nashi)

600

 

European Pears

600-1000

Pistachio

Pistacia vera

600-1500

Kiwifruit

Actinidia deliciosa

600-880

Walnut

Juglans spp

700-1500

Gooseberry

Ribes spp

800-1500

Currants

Ribes spp

800-1600

Raspberry

Rubus spp

800-1600

Hazelnut

Corylus avellana

800-1600

Cranberry

Vaccinium spp

About 800?

Grapes - American

Vitis labrusca

1000-1400

Apples

Malus spp

1000-1600

 

Specific Low Chill Varieties

Specific lower chill varieties that might be more suitable for our region in the short to medium term. Chill hours listed are a guide only. Trees propagated from existing trees that are acclimatised to our climate are likely to do better than those imported from other regions.

Apples

Chill Hours

Fuji

100-400

American Dorset Golden

250

Anna

300

Golden Delicious

400-600

Jonothon

400-600

Sundowner

500-700

Gravestein

500-700

Pink Lady

500-700

Akane

500-700

Granny Smith

600-700

Gala

600

Red Delicious

600

 

Apricots

Chill Hours

Newcastle

<300

Glengarry

<300

Trevatt

250-400

Glengarry

250-400

Moorpark

500-700

Bentley

500-700

 

Peach

Chill Hours

China Flat

<300

Florida Prince

<300

Tropic Beauty

<300

Tropic Snow

<300

Tasty Zee

250-400

Florida Gem

250-400

Aztec Gold

250-400

Florida Gold

250-400

Golden Queen

500-700

Flavourcrest

500-700

 

Further Information

www.small-farm-permaculture-and-sustainable-living.com/growing_fruit.html

http://www.lowchillaustralia.com.au/growers/varieties/Agnote_DPI-479.pdf

http://www.bom.gov.au/

 

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